Absolute Map:


electrical conductivity, which correlates to soil textural properties, water-holding capacity and organic matter.

GIS: Geographic Information System is a framework for gathering, managing, and analyzing data.

GPS: The Global Positioning System (GPS), is a global navigation satellite system that provides time and geolocation information to a GPS receiver anywhere in the world. In other words, it puts the “spatial” in spatial data.

Proximal sensing: collecting detailed information near the surface of the object being sensed. 

Relative map:

 Remote sensing: mapping of the Earth's surface from satellite or airborne systems such as a plane, UAV, or drone.

Spectral Reflectance: the unique way leaves reflect light from the sun. Visible light appears in a spectrum with wavelengths ranging from 380nm to 740nm and, because the leaves use specific wavelengths of light for photosynthesis, not all wavelengths are reflected equally.

VESPAR: a local block kriging program. Collected data is brought into statistical software, where erroneous data and outliers will be deleted. Using VESPER, the data is run through moving-window variogram analysis which predicts values at regular grid points based on the observations (from mobile sensors) around them. This is a fancy way of saying that the data is “smoothed out” to remove pits, which results in easier visualization for growers and also reveals a better pattern for variable rate implementation. As long as the sensor data is interpolated to the same grid, statistical analysis can be used to decipher relationships between data layers over an indefinite period of time. Related data layers can be clustered to produce management zones for variable rate applications.